Thursday, 18 January 2018

(318) Baildon of Baildon

Baildon of Baildon
This family seems to be first recorded in the last years of the 12th century, when Hugh de Baildon was witness to a charter in the Wentworth muniments. The careful scholarship of William Paley Baildon in his three-volume work on Baildon and the Baildons (1912-24) has traced the descent of the family from that time onwards, although almost inevitably some elements in his account are more tenuous than others. The spelling of the name is inconsistent, and it is frequently given as Bayldon rather than Baildon, but this account uses the latter form, which was increasingly standard by the 17th century and is the accepted form of the place-name today. By the 14th century the family had a semi-timbered hall at Baildon, of which one element survives, and the fabric of the semi-timbered southern cross-wing that was rebuilt in the 15th century also survives inside a 17th century stone casing. We do not know which members of the family were responsible for these works, but the story begins to become clearer with the 16th century, and the genealogy below takes up the story with Walter Baildon (c.1448-1510) and his son, John Baildon (c.1468-1526), who was mayor of Doncaster in 1520-21 and lived largely in that town after his second marriage. His son Robert Baildon (c.1496-1559) was sent to the court of King Henry VIII to complete his education, and having caught the king's eye remained there as a Groom of the Chamber until 1526, when he inherited the family estate in Yorkshire. If part of Baildon Hall was rebuilt in 1553, as a datestone recorded in 1848 suggests, it may have been the initiative of his son, Nicholas Baildon (c.1519-60), who was living at Baildon by 1545. He died within a few months of his father, and the estate passed to his son, Robert Baildon (1541-99), who expanded the estate by a significant purchase of lands in 1572.

Robert Baildon was succeeded by his son William Baildon (1562-1627), who had antiquarian interests and helped Roger Dodsworth with his collections of information about the history of Yorkshire. He was infirm and increasingly blind for the last decade of his life, and his son, William Baildon junior (c.1588-1627) therefore took over an increasing part of his father's role on the estate and in the county during his father's lifetime. He survived his father, however, by only a few months, and his widow, Frances, only gave birth to the heir to the estate several months after his death, in October 1627. Frances married again in 1632, to a recusant, George Tempest, from whom she was temporarily separated on account of their religious differences in about 1635, and she also had an affair with her friend Lewis Sheffield which resulted in a conviction for adultery and a large fine. She was, however, subsequently reconciled with her second husband and bore him several children. The guardianship of Francis Baildon (1627-69), her son by her first marriage, was sold by the Court of Wards & Liveries in 1633, and changed hands several times in the next few years. This sequence of events set up a situation in which too many people had competing and overlapping interests in the Baildon estate, with the predictable result that there was constant litigation about the estate for more than twenty years. At the same time, the Civil War was unfolding. In 1642, Francis Baildon was sent to Skipton Castle as a place of safety by his Royalist guardian, and he was still there when the castle was beseiged and surrendered in 1645. On the pretext that his presence indicated he had been in arms against Parliament, the Baildon estate was sequestered, and Francis' minority (which did not end until 1648) and the fragmented rights in the estate, meant that Francis was not able to finally complete the process of compounding for the estate until 1653. The complexities over the estate gradually unwound between Francis' coming of age in 1648, and the Restoration in 1660. It was probably after that he rebuilt the main part of the house, leaving only the south wing of the earlier building, which had been remodelled by his mother c.1630.

Francis Baildon and his wife Jane (d. 1694) had no sons, and their only daughter Mary (1649-79), the last of this main line of the Baildons, married Bredwardine Tindall (d. 1687) and also left only a single daughter: Lucy Tindall (1674-1715), later the wife of Edward Thompson of Marston. On the death of Jane Baildon in 1694 the estate passed to Lucy and her husband, who lived on her husband's property at Marston, and Baildon Hall began a long slide down the social scale to use as a farmhouse in the 19th century.

Baildon Hall, Yorkshire (WR)

Baildon Hall: entrance front, c.1912. The lower projecting wing on the right represents the earlier part of the house.

The Baildon family were settled at Baildon in the West Riding of Yorkshire from early times, and had at first a timber-framed hall house, of which the earliest surviving part is perhaps 14th century. This is a timber-framed partition with the textbook medieval arrangement of three pointed doorways between the lower end of the hall and the right cross-wing. The rest of the cross-wing is also timber-framed, and probably of the late 15th century, but was later encased in stone. This work is probably identifiable with the 'repairs to one end of the mansion house' which Frances Baildon stated in 1656 she had made in the years of her widowhood (between 1627 and 1632). The house was taxed on eight hearths in 1665.
Baildon Hall: ground plan, 1912.
The rest of the house seems to have been rebuilt in the mid 17th century, probably by Francis Baildon (d. 1669) after 1660, when his tangled affairs were straightened out. It is of two-and-a-half storeys, with a triple-gabled front. In 1848 the house had a porch (later removed), inside which was a reset date stone of 1553, which may indicate the date of the previous house. The centre of the house is occupied by the hall, which has a transomed window originally of ten lights, later truncated to seven. Behind the hall, in a gabled turret projecting at the back, is a handsome staircase with ornamented newels that terminate in ogee finials. To the left of the hall is the parlour or drawing room, which has an elaborate plaster ceiling with a geometrical pattern of ribs, little pendants etc., and contemporary panelling. Francis Baildon's initials appear in the frieze.

After Jane Baildon's death in 1694, subsequent owners of the house made increasingly little use of it, and it gradually descended into use as a farmhouse. In 1912, the house was said to be 'rather forlorn', and in the 1930s there was a real possibility that the house might be demolished. It was acquired in 1936 by a firm of house-builders who developed the land around it but were persuaded to preserve the house and sell it on, with very little land, to the local freemasons' lodge. During the Second World War they loaned it to the Auxiliary Fire Service, which converted it into a social club, and after the war it was acquired by Baildon Hall Social Club to maintain this use. It continues to function as a social club today.

Descent: John de Baildon (fl. 1362); to son, William de Baildon (d. by 1417); to son, Nicholas de Baildon (probably d. by 1437); to son, Nicholas Baildon (1396-c.1452); to son, Robert Baildon (d. 1473); to son, Walter Baildon (c.1448-1510); to son, John Baildon (c.1468-1526); to son, Robert Baildon (c.1496-1559); to son, Nicholas Baildon (c.1519-60); to son, Robert Baildon (1541-99); to son, William Baildon (1562-1627); to son, William Baildon (c.1590-1627); to son, Francis Baildon (c.1627-69); to widow, Jane Baildon (d. 1694); to granddaughter Lucy (1674-1715), wife of Edward Thompson (1670-1734) of Marston; to son, Francis Thompson (1701-41); to daughter, Anna Jane Thompson (c.1738-65), later wife of Paul Meyer (d. 1763) of Pontefract; to half-brother, William Meeke (later Meyer) (executed for murder, 1781); to son, William Meyer (later Thompson) (1772-1839); to sister, Anna Jane Meyer (later Meeke) (1775-1852); sold 1849 to William Maude (c.1781-1860); to son, Abraham Maude (d. 1876); to son, William Wade Maude (d. 1933); sold 1936 to a house-builder; sold 1936 to Baildon Lodge of Freemasons; lent to Auxiliary Fire Service, 1939, who converted it into a social club; sold late 1940s to Baildon Hall Social Club.

Baildon family of Baildon

Baildon, Walter (c.1448-c.1510). Son of Robert Baildon (d. 1472) and his wife Anne, daughter of Walter Calverley, born about 1448. He was granted administration of his father's goods, 11 January 1472/3. He married a daughter of Thomas Gargrave (probably of Wakefield), and had issue:
(1) John Baildon (d. 1526) (q.v.);
(2) Anne Baildon; married William Threapland and had issue;
(3) William Baildon (fl. 1501-35) of Baildon;
(4) Richard Baildon (fl. 1515) of Swinefleet; married and had issue.
He inherited Baildon Hall from his father in 1473.
He died before the Trinity term of 1511. His wife's date of death is unknown.

Baildon, John (c.1468-1526). Son of Walter Baildon (c.1448-c.1510) of Baildon and his wife, a daughter of Thomas Gargrave, born about 1468 or 1469. As a young man he was apparently a page in the household of Sir William Plumpton of Knaresborough Castle (Yorks WR), and he continued to hold some office at Knaresborough until at least 1508. In 1512 he was one of the collectors of the lay subsidy in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Mayor of Doncaster, 1520-21. He married 1st, c.1490, a daughter of John Haldenby of Haldenby (Yorks WR), and 2nd, Oct-Dec 1515 at Doncaster, Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Mauleverer of Allerton Mauleverer (Yorks WR) and widow of Edward Copley (d. 1514) of Doncaster, and had issue including:
(1.1) John Baildon; died young, before 1522;
(1.2) Robert Baildon (c.1496-1559) (q.v.);
(1.3) Thomas Baildon (fl. 1530 and perhaps 1549);
(1.4) Edward Baildon, of Doncaster;
(1.5) Richard Baildon (fl. 1546) of Heaton near Bradford (Yorks WR); yeoman; attend the 1539 militia muster as a mounted archer; living in 1546;
(1.6) Edith Baildon (d. 1548); died unmarried, between July and December 1548; will proved, 14 December 1548;
(1.7) Jennet Baildon (fl. 1548).
He inherited Baildon Hall from his father c.1510. In about 1515 he moved to Doncaster on his second marriage.
He died 22 December 1526; administration of his goods was granted to his son, 9 January 1526/7; an inquisition post mortem was held 21 June 1527. His first wife died before 1515. His second wife's date of death is unknown.

Baildon, Robert (c.1496-1559). Son of John Baildon (c.1468-1526) and his first wife, daughter of John Haldenby of Haldenby, born 1496/7. He completed his education at Court, where he was subsequently employed as a Groom of the Counting House and later of the Privy Chamber c.1516-26, and was granted an annuity of £10 a year by 'the special favour' of the King, 1519. In 1520 he was one of two Grooms of the Chamber appointed to attend Queen Catherine of Aragon at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. He probably resigned his post at Court on the death of his father. In 1539 he attended a militia muster at Wyke near Harewood, and was recorded as a mounted archer. In 1540-41 he was one of the collectors of a Lay Subsidy in the West Riding. He married, probably in 1518, Margaret, daughter of Peter Mirfield of Tonge, and had issue:
(1) Nicholas Baildon (c.1519-60) (q.v.);
(2) George Baildon.
He inherited Baildon Hall from his father.
He died after 6 March 1559. His wife was living in 1554.

Baildon, Nicholas (c.1519-60). Elder son of Robert Baildon (c.1496-1559) and his wife Margaret, daughter of Peter Mirfield, born 1519/20. He married, 6 May 1539 at Halifax (Yorks WR), Sibyl (fl. 1577), daughter of Richard Waterhouse of Priestley near Halifax, and had issue:
(1) Ellen Baildon (fl. 1585); married George Pollard and probably had issue;
(2) Rosamond Baildon (d. 1608); married, before 1584, Walter Hartley (d. 1611) of Otley, husbandman, and had issue four sons and three daughters; buried at Otley, 15 November 1608;
(3) Robert Baildon (1541-99) (q.v.);
(4) Sibyl Baildon (fl. 1585); died unmarried;
(5) Anne Baildon (fl. 1608); married, before 1586, William Pulleyn (d. 1608), gent., of Hawkesworth (Yorks WR), and had issue four sons.
He lived with his wife's parents until he came of age and then at Southowram (Yorks WR) but he was living at Baildon by 1545 and could have been responsible for the work there indicated by a now-lost datestone of 1553. However, he only inherited Baildon Hall from his father in c.1559.
He probably died in the autumn of 1560; administration of his goods was granted to his widow, 21 November 1560. His widow was living in 1577; her date of death is unknown.

Baildon, Robert (1541-99). Only son of Nicholas Baildon (c.1519-60) and his wife Sibyl, daughter of Richard Waterhouse of Shibden, baptised at Halifax, 19 July 1541. In 1585 his arms and pedigree were recorded at the Heralds' Visitation of Yorkshire. He married 1st, Isabel (d. by 1583), daughter of Thomas Maude of West Riddlesden (Yorks WR), and 2nd, Isabel (fl. 1599), probably daughter of Francis Paslew (d. 1582) of Bingley (Yorks WR), and had issue:
(1.1) William Baildon (1562-1627) (q.v.);
(1.2) Anne Baildon (fl. 1585); probably died unmarried;
(1.3) Bridget Baildon (fl. 1585); probably died unmarried.
He inherited Baildon Hall from his father in 1560. In 1572 he enlarged his estate by buying lands at Baildon from Nicholas Tempest.
He died shortly before administration of his goods was granted 31 July 1599. His first wife was dead by 1583. His widow is said to have married 2nd, John Brearey of Menston; her date of death is unknown.

Baildon, William (1562-1627). Only son of Robert Baildon (1541-99) and his first wife, Isabel, daughter of Thomas Maude, born about September 1562. He seems to have had antiquarian interests, and was one of Roger Dodsworth's informants when he was collecting information on this part of Yorkshire in 1619. He was infirm and losing his sight by 1618 and was blind by 1625. He married 1st, 3 July 1586* at Bingley (Yorks WR), Margaret (fl. 1599), daughter of Arthur Maude, 2nd, 1609/10, Anne (d. 1613), daughter of John Grimshaw and widow of Simon Haydocke (d. 1607) of Haysandforth, Burnley (Lancs), and 3rd, c.1617, Jane (d. 1639), daughter of Robert Rishworth of East Riddlesden (Yorks WR) and widow of Thomas Savile of Darton and John Popeley of Woolley Morehouse, Royston (Yorks WR), and had issue:
(1.1) Robert Baildon (b. 1586), baptised at Bingley, 4 July 1586; died young;
(1.2) William Baildon (c.1588-1627);
(1.3) John Baildon (d. 1623); buried at Baildon, 3 March 1622/3;
(1.4) Margaret Baildon (d. 1635?), perhaps the person of that name buried at Bingley, 13 April 1635.
He inherited Baildon Hall from his father in 1599.
He died 20 December 1627 and was buried at Baildon, 1 January 1627/8; administration of his goods was granted to his widow, 6 February 1627/8 (effects over £40); an inquisition post mortem was not held until a long dispute in the Court of Wards was resolved; it was finally held 8 April 1634. His first wife died after 1599. His second wife died before 15 October 1613, when administration of her goods was granted. His widow died in 1638/9; her will was proved 8 March 1638/9.
* Possibly an error for 1585?

Baildon, William (c.1588-1627). Second, but eldest surviving son of William Baildon (1562-1627) and his first wife, Mary, daughter of Arthur Maude, born about 1588 and apparently of age in 1620. He married, 14 July 1623 at Baildon, Frances (fl. 1656), daughter of Thomas Savile of The Haigh, Kexborough (Yorks WR) and had issue:
(1) Jane Baildon (1624-34), baptised at Baildon, 11 April 1624; died young and was buried at Baildon, 11 April 1634;
(2) Robert Baildon (b. & d. 1625), baptised at Baildon, 26 March 1625; died in infancy and was buried at Baildon, 12 July 1625;
(3) Margaret Baildon (1626-35), baptised at Baildon, 10 May 1626; died young, before November 1635;
(4) Francis Baildon (1627-69) (q.v.).
He did not live to inherit Baildon Hall, but his widow was resident there for some years in the 1630s and in a deposition of 1656 said she then rebuilt one end of the house.
He died in the lifetime of his father, 1 August 1627; a grant of administration of his goods was made to his widow 22 May 1628*. His widow married 2nd, 15 September 1632 at Baildon, George Tempest (fl. 1656), fifth son of Sir Stephen Tempest of Broughton (Yorks WR), a recusant. The legality of this marriage was subsequently contested and after three or four years she and Tempest separated because she refused to convert to Catholicism, and she then went to live with her uncle John Rishworth of East Riddlesden. In 1635-36 she was accused and convicted in absentia of adultery with her friend Lewis Sheffield and fined £500; but she was later reconciled with her husband, converted to Catholicism, and had further issue three sons and two daughters. She was living in 1656. Her second husband was also living in 1656; they probably died fairly soon afterwards.
*The record says 1627 but this must be an error.

Baildon, Francis (1627-69). Second, but only surviving son of William Baildon (c.1588-1627) and his wife Frances, daughter of Thomas Savile, born posthumously in October 1627 and baptised at Baildon, 17 October 1628. His wardship was granted in 1633 to John Browne of St Martin-in-the-Fields (Middx) and assigned to Francis Neville of Chevet Park (Yorks WR) in February 1635/6, who reassigned it in July 1637 to Francis Malham of Elslack (Yorks). In 1642, at the commencement of the Civil War, his guardian sent him to the Royalist stronghold of Skipton Castle for protection, but the castle later came under siege and his presence there was construed to mean that he was in arms against Parliament, despite his tender age. In 1649 he compounded for his estate but the following year it appeared that the estate had been undervalued and part of it was again sequestered; after much legal wrangling he was finally allowed to compound for it in 1653. In 1657-58 he was apparently briefly confined in the Marshalsea for debt. In 1660, he was on the list of those proposed to be honoured by King Charles II as Knights of the Royal Oak, but the proposal was abandoned as being liable to perpetuate dissension. In the 1660s he was a Captain in the Trained Bands of the West Riding of Yorkshire. He married, c.1649, Jane (d. 1694), daughter of Sir Richard Hawkesworth, kt., and had issue:
(1) Mary Baildon (1649-79) (q.v.).
He inherited Baildon Hall from his grandfather in December 1627 and came of age in 1648. At his death it passed to his widow, and then to their granddaughter, Lucy Tindall.
He died 23 May and was buried at Baildon, 25 May 1669, where he was commemorated by a monument, now lost. His widow was buried at Otley (Yorks WR), 11 January 1693/4.

Baildon, Mary (1649-79). Only child of Francis Baildon (1627-69) and his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Richard Hawkesworth, baptised at Baildon, 3 January 1649/50. She married, 21 September 1665 at Hooton Pagnell (Yorks WR), Bredwardine Tindall (c.1641-87) of Brotherton (Yorks WR), eldest son of Henry Tindall, and had issue:
(1) Lucy Tindall (1674-1715), baptised 2 March 1673/4; married, 9 October 1689, Edward Thompson (1670-1734) of Marston, third son of Sir Henry Thompson, kt., and had issue seven sons and nine daughters; died 23 April and was buried at Marston, 29 April 1715.
Mary was buried at Brotherton, 29 October 1679. Her husband married 2nd, Margaret (fl. 1690), daughter of Anthony Byerley of Midridge Grange and died 12 March 1686/7.


W.P. Baildon, The Baildons of Baildon, 1912-24, 3 vols.; P. Leach & Sir N. Pevsner, The buildings of England: Yorkshire West Riding - Leeds, Bradford and the North, 2009, p. 107.

Location of archives

Baildon family of Baildon: genealogical notes of W.P. Baildon, 19th-20th cents. [West Yorkshire Archives Service, Bradford [WPB; 15D74 Box 10 Case 1]

Coat of arms

Argent, a fesse between three fleurs-de-lys sable.

Can you help?
Here are a few notes about information and images which would help to improve the account above. If you can help with any of these or with other additions or corrections, please use the contact form in the sidebar to get in touch. Can anyone:

  • Supply good photographs of the parlour or staircase at Baildon Hall?

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 18 January 2018.

Monday, 15 January 2018

(317) Baikie of Tankerness

Baikie of Tankerness
According to tradition, the founder of this family was Paul Baikie, who went as pilot or navigator with King Haakon V of Norway to Orkney after the Battle of Largs in 1263, and settled there. The genealogy of the family cannot be carried back any further, however, than the time of Magnus Baikie of Isbister in the 16th century, and is very incomplete and uncertain down to the time of James Baikie (c.1710-64). What does seem to be undisputed, however, is that James Baikie (d. 1675) acquired both the Hall of Tankerness (in about 1630) and Tankerness House, Kirkwall (in 1641), which became the main residences of the family. Tankerness House in Broad St., Kirkwall, is thought to have been first begun for the Rev. Gilbert Fulzie, minister of Kirkwall and Archdeacon of Orkney, in 1574, and the north range and gateway to the street date from this time. The house was, however, much altered and extended for the Baikies in the 18th century and again c.1820. 
Tankerness House, Kirkwall: a 16th and 18th century, remodelled in c.1820, which was the town house of the Baikies from 1641. Image: UltimaThule

The two-storey west range has a date-stone for 1722, and the south range may be fundamentally of the same time, but most of the details were altered about a hundred years later.

James Baikie (d. 1675) lived to a ripe old age and his son and heir, Arthur Baikie (d. 1679) survived him by a mere four years. His only son, James Baikie (1665-1700) died without issue, and the family estates then reverted to Arthur's younger brother, George Baikie (d. 1730). His son, Robert Baikie (d. 1734) again only survived his father by four years, and it is only with his son, another James Baikie (c.1710-64) that the genealogical and historical record becomes a little fuller. James was Provost of Kirkwall during the Jacobite rebellion of the 1740s, and since he was a support of the Earl of Morton's interest in Parliament, it may be supposed that he was not unsympathetic to the Jacobite cause. He evidently made himself useful politically, as he was granted a pension by Lord Morton, which was continued for his widow, who may not have died until 1805.

James was succeeded by his son, William Baikie (d. 1817), who was also politically active and was, indeed, briefly MP for the Orkney islands, being elected in 1780 but unseated the following year after his opponents argued that the poll had been rigged. His son, James Baikie (1786-1869) was responsible both for remodelling Tankerness House in Kirkwall and for adding the north-east wing to the Hall of Tankerness. He trained and qualified as an advocate in Edinburgh, but never practised as such, and he sold a good deal of the Tankerness estate. Although married, he produced no children, and on his death his estate passed to his younger brother, a retired army surgeon turned homeopathic doctor, with whom he had not been on the best of terms for many years. Dr. Robert Baikie (1799-1889) preferred Edinburgh to the Orkney Islands, and by 1877 Tankerness House was occupied by his niece, Deborah Hodgson Cowan (1825-1907), the mother of Dr. Baikie's eventual heir, William Dover Cowan (1850-98). W.D. Cowan, who took the name Baikie in lieu of Cowan, had been brought up in London, and before his inheritance was the secretary of a fashionable London club for artists and literary people, the Crichton Club. He gave up this career and moved north to throw himself into the management of his estate and his role in the community. He too had no children, and when he died young in 1898, the estate passed to his younger brother, Alfred Cowan (1861-1947), who also took the name Baikie. He became even more involved in local affairs than his brother had done, and in 1930 was appointed as Lord Lieutenant of the Orkney and Shetland islands: the highest office ever attained by any member of the family. His son, Robert Baikie (1892-1969) made a new life for himself in Africa in the 1920s, and when he inherited his father's estate had no fancy to return to post-war Scotland to manage it. Tankerness House was sold in 1951 and eventually became Orkney Museum; and Hall of Tankerness was probably sold at much the same time.

Hall of Tankerness, Mainland, Orkney

There is said to have been a house on this site since the 12th century, when Erling of Tankerness had a drinking hall here, but the earliest part of the present building (in the south-west wing) was probably built for William Groat, who acquired the Tankerness estate in 1550. It was sold c.1630 to James Baikie, who in 1641 also acquired a town house in Kirkwall (now the Orkney Museum) where they probably lived most of the time. 

Hall of Tankerness: the house before the addition of an upper floor to the north-east wing, c.1910. Image: Orkney Archives, Tom Kent collection.

In the 1730s, Hall of Tankerness was let to a tenant but the James Baikie of the day reserved part of the house for his own use, and that may have been the usual arrangement over a long period. The original building was perhaps extended to the north in the 1730s, and a hundred years later a new single-storey north-east wing was built for James Baikie (1786-1869), containing new public rooms, and joined to the existing house by a short battlemented link. 

Hall of Tankerness: the house today. Image: AirBNB.

Finally, in about 1910, the north-east wing was given an upper floor and a canted bay window for Alfred Baikie (1861-1947). The house was sold by the Baikie family in the mid 20th century, and is now a guesthouse.

Descent: sold 1550 to William Groat... sold c.1630 to James Baikie (d. 1675); to son, Arthur Baikie (d. 1679); to son, James Baikie (1665-1700); to uncle, George Baikie (d. 1730); to son, Robert Baikie (d. 1734); to son, James Baikie (c.1710-64); to son, Robert Baikie (d. 1817); to son, James Baikie (1786-1869); to brother, Robert Baikie MD (1799-1889); to great-nephew, William Dover Cowan (later Baikie) (1850-98); to brother, Alfred Baikie (1861-1947); to son, Robert Baikie (1892-1969)... Magnus Robertson Bain (b. 1968).

Baikie family of Tankerness

Baikie, James (d. 1675). Son of Thomas Baikie (d. 1613) and his wife Marjorie Poplay of Kirkwall (Orkney), probably born about 1600. Merchant in Kirkwall; Provost of Kirkwall. He married Barbara Smith of Ackergill Tower (Caithness) and had issue including:
(1) Arthur Baikie (d. 1679) (q.v.);
(2) Margery Baikie (d. by 1678); married, 1654 or 1657, George Balfour of Pharey, and had issue; died before 1678;
(3) George Baikie (d. 1730) (q.v.);
(4) Katherine Baikie (d. 1688); married, 5 June 1666, as his first wife, George Traill (d. 1706) of Holland, and had issue one son; died 1688;
(5) Elspeth Baikie; married Patrick Traill and had issue;
(6) William Baikie (fl. 1683) of Holland; educated at St. Andrews University (MA); biblophile.
He bought the Tankerness estate in c.1630, and Tankerness House in Kirkwall in 1641.
He died 16 January 1675. His wife's date of death is unknown.

Baikie, Arthur (d. 1679). Son of James Baikie (d. 1675) and his wife Barbara Smith of Ackergill Tower (Caithness). A Commissioner of Supply, 1678. Provost of Kirkwall. He married, 5 July 1665 at Kirkwall, Elizabeth Moncrieff, and had issue (possibly among others):
(1) James Baikie (1665-1700) (q.v.).
He inherited Tankerness from his father in 1675.
He died in 1679. His wife's date of death is unknown.

Baikie, James (1665-1700). Only son of Arthur Baikie (d. 1679) and his wife Elizabeth Moncrieff, baptised at Kirkwall, 28 December 1665. He married his cousin, Barbara, daughter of George Baikie (d. 1730) (q.v.), but had no issue.
He inherited Tankerness from his father in 1679. At his death his estates passed to his uncle George.
He died in 1700. His wife's date of death is unknown.

Baikie, George (d. 1730). Younger son of James Baikie (d. 1675) and his wife Barbara Smith of Ackergill Tower (Caithness). He married Joan, daughter of Col. Robert Stewart of Eday, and had issue including:
(1) Robert Baikie (d. 1734) (q.v.);
(2) Barbara Baikie; married her cousin, James Baikie (d. 1700) (q.v.);
(3) George Baikie (fl. 1722).
He inherited Tankerness from his nephew in 1700.
He died in 1730. His wife's date of death is unknown.

Baikie, Robert (d. 1734). Son of George Baikie (d. 1730) and his wife Joan, daughter of Col. Robert Stewart of Eday. He married, 1701 (contract 15 February), Margaret, younger daughter of Lawrence Sinclair of Quendale (Shetland) and widow of Andrew Bruce (d. 1699) of Muness (Shetland), and had issue including:
(1) Robert Baikie (b. 1705), baptised at Kirkwall, 3 March 1705; presumably died young;
(1) James Baikie (c.1710-64) (q.v.);

(2) William Baikie (b. 1719), baptised at Kirkwall, 4 June 1719.
He inherited Tankerness from his father in 1730.
He died in 1734. His wife's date of death is unknown.

Baikie, James (c.1710-64). Son of Robert Baikie (d. 1734) and his wife Margaret, daughter of Lawrence Sinclair of Quendale (Shetland) and widow of Andrew Bruce of Muness, born about 1710. Provost of Kirkwall during the Jacobite rebellion of 1745. He was a supporter of the Earl of Morton's interest in Parliament, and received a pension of £200 a year in respect of his electoral services which was continued to his widow. He married, 8 June 1736 at Kirkwall, Janet, daughter of William Douglas of Egilshay and Spynie, and had issue including:
(1) James Baikie (b. 1737), baptised 25 May 1737; died young;
(2) Robert Baikie (d. 1817) (q.v.);
(3) Margaret Baikie (1739-92/95), baptised 26 January 1739; probably died unmarried and was buried at Kirkwall, 29 January 1792 or 1 February 1795;
(4) Barbara Baikie (1741-84), baptised 20 May 1741; married, 19 November 1766 at Kirkwall, William Smith (c.1707-78); died 13 May 1784 and was buried at Firth and Stenness;
(5) Janet Baikie (1743-1816), born and baptised 7 January 1743; died unmarried and was buried at Kirkwall, 3 February 1816;
(6) Jacoba Baikie (b. 1744), baptised 6 August 1744;
(7) James Baikie (b. 1745), baptised 3 October 1745;
(8) Grissel Baikie (b. 1747), baptised 9 October 1747; married, 10 September 1772 at Kirkwall, Capt. Walter Stewart; 
(9) Christian Baikie (1751-95), baptised 31 May 1751; died unmarried and was buried at Kirkwall, 16 December 1795;
(10) Elizabeth Baikie (d. 1788?); married (probably bigamously, as his first wife did not die until 1821), 29 March 1787 at Edinburgh RC Cathedral, Dr Peter Degravers, a quack surgeon and author of a treatise on the treatment of diseases of the eye, and had issue one daughter; died, probably in childbirth in 1788 and certainly before 17 April 1789.
He inherited Tankerness from his father in 1734.
He died in 1764. His widow was perhaps the Mrs. Baikie who died at Kirkwall, 28 August 1805.

Robert Baikie (d. 1817)
Baikie, Robert (d. 1817). Son of James Baikie (d. 1764) and his wife Jane, daughter of William Douglas of Spynie. MP for Orkney & Shetland, 1780-81, but was unseated on petition; he stood again, against the Dundas interest in the burgh, in 1784, but was defeated by Col. Thomas Dundas. An officer in Orkney & Shetland Battalion of Fencible Men (Capt., 1793). He married, 13 February 1785 at Kirkwall, Mary (1760-1831), daughter of Thomas Balfour of Huip, and had issue:
(1) James Baikie (1786-1869) (q.v.);
(2) Mary Baikie (1787-1860) (q.v.); 
(3) Janet Douglas Baikie (b. 1789), baptised at Kirkwall, 5 May 1789; died young;
(4) Thomas Baikie (1791-1811), born 2 April 1791; a midshipman in the Royal Navy; died unmarried when he drowned in the Baltic Sea, 11 August 1811;
(5) Frances Baikie (1795-1877), born 18 February 1795; married, 9 July 1818, Lt. Gilbert Traill RN (1788-1849) and had issue two sons and two daughters; died 4 April 1877;
(6) William Baikie (1797-1823), born 29 April and baptised at Kirkwall, 31 May 1797; medical student at St George's Hospital, London; died unmarried and was buried at St George, Hanover Square, London, 12 October 1823;
(7) Dr. Robert Baikie MD (1799-1889) (q.v.).
He inherited Tankerness from his father in 1764.
He died 4 April 1817. His widow died 24 March and was buried at Evie & Rendall (Orkney), 27 March 1831.

James Baikie (1786-1869)
Baikie, James (1786-1869). Eldest son of Robert Baikie (d. 1817) and his wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Balfour of Huip, born 4 April 1786. Educated at Kirkwall Grammar School, Aberdeen and Faculty of Advocates, Edinburgh (called to bar, 1811), but did not practice as an advocate. A Liberal in politics; Vice-Lieutenant of Orkney; Provost of Kirkwall, 1836-50. He was at first a member of the established Church of Scotland and was representative elder of the Kirkwall Presbytery at the General Assembly, but in 1822 he transferred to the United Presbyterian congregation in Kirkwall, having admired the preaching of Dr. Paterson, the minister there, who became a close friend. He married, 12 December 1814 at Aberdour (Fife), Eleanora Anderson (1796-1862), second daughter of William Wemyss of Cuttlehill (Fife), but had no issue.
He inherited Tankerness from his father in 1817, and was one of the leading landed proprietors in the Orkneys until he sold off a good deal of the estate after the failure of the kelp trade in the 1820s. He lived at Tankerness House in Kirkwall until c.1830, when having enlarged the Hall of Tankerness he moved there.
He died following a fall from his horse, 24 February 1869. His wife died 26 July 1862.

Baikie, Dr. Robert MD (1799-1889). Fourth and youngest son of Robert Baikie (d. 1817) and his wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Balfour of Huip, born 30 October and baptised at Kirkwall, 16 November 1799. He was educated at Edinburgh Univ (MD, 1820) and was a surgeon in the East India Co.'s Madras Army (Asst Surgeon, 1820; Surgeon, 1834; retired 1844). He returned from India in indifferent health and made a practice of walking many miles every day. He practised in Edinburgh and treated his patients increasingly with homeopathic remedies. DL and JP for Orkney. He married, 18 March 1852 at Holy Trinity, Paddington (Middx), Helen Elizabeth (c.1816-86), daughter of John Maxwell Davidson of Bengal Medical Service, but had no issue.
He inherited Tankerness from his eldest brother in 1869, but lived chiefly in Edinburgh as the climate of Orkney did not suit his wife. 
He died in Edinburgh, 5 August 1889, but was buried on Orkney; his will was confirmed in Edinburgh (estate £3,308) and sealed in London, 31 October 1889. His wife died in Edinburgh, 6 February 1886.

Baikie, Mary (1787-1860). Eldest daughter of Robert Baikie (d. 1817) and his wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Balfour of Huip, born 2 November 1787. She married 1st, 10 June 1807 at Kirkwall, Lt. William Sinclair Robertson of 95th Rifles; 2nd, 2 November 1816 at Kirkwall, Lt. Jeremiah Skelton RN (d. 1823); and 3rd, October 1823 at Flimby (Cumbld), Capt. Joseph Dover (1780-1854) of Ormathwaite House, Crosthwaite (Cumbld), son of William Dover, and had issue:
(1.1) William Sinclair Robertson (1808-29), born 28 July 1808; an officer in the East India Company's Madras service (Lt.); died at Bangalon (India), 18 May 1829;
(1.2) Mary Balfour Robertson (b. 1811), born 23 January 1811; married, May 1833 at Crosthwaite (Cumbld), Edwin Simpson (d. by 1851), of Roundhay Lodge near Leeds, and had issue two sons and one daughter; living in 1851;
(3.1) Deborah Hodgson Dover (1825-1907) (q.v.).
She died 5 January 1860. Her first husband died before 1816. Her second husband died in 1823. Her third husband died in 1854; his will was proved in the PCC, 5 May 1854.

Dover, Deborah Hodgson (1825-1907). Only daughter of Capt. Joseph Dover of Keswick (Cumbld.) and his wife Mary, daughter of Robert Baikie (d. 1817) of Tankerness and widow of Lt. W. Robertson and Lt. Skelton RN, born 28 November 1825 and baptised at Bowness-on-Solway (Cumbld), 27 July 1826. She married, 18 January 1846 at Crosthwaite (Cumbld), William Layman Cowan (1822-1916), stockbroker, son of Capt. Michael Cowan RN, and had issue:
(1) Eliza Mary Cowan (1848-77), born 18 January 1848; married, 19 September 1872 at Kirkwall Cathedral, George Thomas Courtenay MD (1842-89) and had issue two sons and two daughters; died 7 September 1877;
(2) William Dover Cowan (later Baikie) (1850-98) (q.v.);
(3) Mary Cowan (1851-1915), born 3 November 1851; died unmarried, 18 October 1915 and was buried in the churchyard of Kirkwall Cathedral;
(4) Clara Cowan (1853-1945), born 20 June and baptised at St John, Hampstead (Middx), 24 July 1853; married, 7 August 1878 at St Olaf's Episcopal Church, Kirkwall, George Scott Elgin (b. 1851), wholesale stationer, son of William Elgin of Edinburgh, wholesale stationer, and had issue one son and five daughters; died in Edmonton (Middx), 18 March 1945; will proved 22 August 1946 (estate £146);
(5) Malcolm Cowan (1857-89), born 24 May and baptised at St John, Hampstead, 4 December 1857; medical student at King's College Hospital; was censured by the Coroner in 1888 after a man died from taking an overdose of strychnine in a medicine of his prescribing that had been incorrectly made up; died unmarried and without issue, Oct-Dec 1889;
(6) Alfred Cowan (later Baikie) (1861-1947) (q.v.).
She lived at Chalk Farm (Middx) in 1861 and at Tankerness House, Kirkwall by 1877.
She died 16 March 1907; her will was confirmed in Kirkwall and sealed in London, 10 July 1907. Her husband died 19 January 1916 and was buried in the churchyard of St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall; his will was confirmed at Kirkwall and sealed in London, 28 April 1916.

William Dover Cowan (later Baikie)
Cowan (later Baikie), William Dover (1850-98). Eldest son of William Layman Cowan and his wife Deborah Hodgson, daughter of Capt. Joseph Dover of Keswick (Cumbld), born 28 June 1850. Secretary of the Crichton Club, a literary and dramatic club at 3, Adelphi Terrace, London. In 1879 he took the name of Baikie in lieu of Cowan. Commissioner of Supply for Orkney; JP for Orkney and Shetland from 1878. He married, 6 August 1879, Johanna Dempster (1851-95), daughter of Ralph Fotheringham of Lynnfield, Kirkwall, but had no issue.
He inherited Tankerness from his great-uncle in 1889.
He died 29 November 1898; his will was confirmed in Kirkwall, 25 April 1899 and sealed in London, 3 May 1899. His wife died in Hampstead (Middx), 7 July 1895.

Cowan (later Baikie), Alfred (1861-1947). Third and youngest son of William Layman Cowan and his wife Deborah Hodson, daughter of Capt. Joseph Dover of Keswick (Cumbld), born 9 March 1861. He took the name of Baikie in lieu of Cowan, 1898. Consulting engineer. President of the  Orkney Territorial Forces Association, 1908. Commissioner of Supply; JP for Orkney and Shetland; Lord Lieutenant of Orkney & Shetland, 1930-47 (Vice-Lieutenant, 1907-30). He was appointed CB, 1941. He married 1st, 25 August 1888, Annie Traill (d. 1896), daughter of Ralph Fotheringham of Lynnfield, Kirkwall, and 2nd, 24 July 1902, Mary Anne Stewart (1855-1950), youngest daughter of Thomas Traill of Holland (Orkney), and had issue:
(1.1) Robert Baikie (1892-1969) (q.v.);
(2.1) Margaret Traill Baikie (b. 1906), born 29 June 1906; served in Second World War as an officer in WRNS (3rd officer, 1939; 2nd officer, 1943); living in 1950.
He lived at South Croydon (Surrey) until he inherited Tankerness from his brother in 1898; he let Hall of Tankerness before 1925 to William Sinclair.
He died 21 October 1947. His first wife died 10 July 1896. His widow died 16 October 1950.

Baikie, Robert (1892-1969). Only son of Alfred Cowan (later Baikie) (1861-1947) and his first wife, Annie Traill, daughter of Ralph Fotheringham of Lynnfield, Kirkwall (Orkney), born in South Croydon, 9 June 1892. Educated at Loretto Sch., Edinburgh and Clare College, Cambridge (MA). He served in First World War as an officer in the Royal Field Artillery (Lt.). Commissioner of Supply for Orkney, 1916. In the 1920s he was living in London, but by 1939 he had emigrated to Southern Rhodesia, where he worked as a storekeeper. He retired in the late 1940s to the Transvaal in South Africa, and made two return visits to the UK in 1947 and 1950 which are assumed to be connected with settling up his parents' estates and disposing of the Tankerness property. He married, 7 April 1925 in Willesden (Middx), Ethel Norah (d. 1976), only daughter of Henry Lionel Smith of Bulawayo and Co. Leix, and had issue:
(1) Jean Traill Baikie (b. 1926), born in London, 8 March 1926; returned to England 1946 and qualified as a physiotherapist, 1949.
He inherited Tankerness from his father in 1947, but sold it probably in 1950.
He died in the Transvaal (South Africa) in 1969. His widow died in the Transvaal, 1976.


Burke's Landed Gentry, 1952, p. 88; T.W. Traill, The Frotoft branch of the Orkney Traills, 1902; J. Gifford, The buildings of Scotland: Highland and Islands, 1992, pp. 338-39, 374-75.

Location of archives

Baikie family of Tankerness: deeds, estate, legal, household and family papers, 15th century-1970 [Orkney Archives, D24, D28]

Coat of arms

Argent, on a chevron gules between three flames of fire proper, a lion rampant between two estoiles of six points of the field.

Can you help?

Here are a few notes about information and images which would help to improve the account above. If you can help with any of these or with other additions or corrections, please use the contact form in the sidebar to get in touch. Can anyone:

  • Provide further information about the genealogy of the earlier generations of this family?
  • Give an exact date for the sale of Hall of Tankerness, or further information about the subsequent history of Robert Baikie, his sister, Margaret Traill Baikie, or his daughter, Jean Traill Baikie.

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 15 January 2018.

Wednesday, 10 January 2018

(267) Allcard of Burton Closes and Wimblehurst

Allcard of Burton Closes
John Allcard (1779-1856), who was the eldest child of a middle class Quaker couple from Leek in Staffordshire, James and Sarah Allcard, made his way to London around the beginning of the 19th century, and became involved in the burgeoning financial industry of the City of London. He was probably trained as a book-keeper and accountant, and first appears in the public record as an auditor and a banker (in partnership with Samuel Gurney and David Barclay Chapman), but he went on to participate in different fields, being a director of several Life Assurance societies and also a stockbroker with Cannon, Pelly and Allcard. His wife died in 1843, and soon afterwards he decided to semi-retire from business. He had lived for many years at Stratford Green on the eastern edge of London, but for a retirement home he looked back to his roots and bought a small estate at Bakewell (Derbys), which was the parish from which his grandfather, William Allcard, had come. This property, which was known as Burton Closes, did not include a substantial house, but he commissioned one from the great engineer and architect, Sir Joseph Paxton (1803-65), and then invited Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812-52) to decorate the interior.

Although John Allcard had had a large family, only his unmarried daughter Sarah Allcard (1817-99) and her cousin, Eliza Shipman, were living with John Allcard by the late 1840s. Although grand, therefore, Burton Closes Hall did not need to be very large. John's eldest son, William Allcard (1809-61), who was in line to inherit the property, and who had a large young family of his own, actually paid his father £2,000 towards the additional cost of making the building bigger than he had originally intended. Nonetheless, when William inherited in 1856, he at once commissioned the enlargement of the house. For this, he did not go back to Joseph Paxton, but instead turned to a Liverpool architect who was probably a personal friend, who did a remarkably tactful job of expanding the original house to the west in 1856-58. It is thought, however, that Pugin's collaborator, J.G. Crace, was once again put in charge of the internal decoration.

William Allcard was a railway engineer, trained by George Stephenson in the 1820s, and involved in several of the pioneering railway projects of the 1830s. He built up both a railway maintenance empire and a firm (Allcard, Buddicom & Co.) which manufactured steam engines and rolling stock for the French railway network, and by 1847 he was able to take a step back from the day-to-day management of these business and to lead the life of a gentleman at Burton Closes. He became an active justice of the peace and was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant for Derbyshire, but at the early age of fifty-two he died of a stroke. Burton Closes passed to his eldest son, William Henry Allcard (1838-1903), who trained first as a solicitor and then went to Lincoln's Inn and retrained as a barrister. He seems not to have had much success in his chosen career, and to have been substantially dependent on the income from his investments to maintain his position in the world. However, in 1866, he sustained serious losses in the stock market crash, and it quickly became clear he would have to sell Burton Closes Hall. It was offered for sale at auction unsuccessfully in 1870, but sold the following year. William Henry, who remained unmarried, moved in with his mother, whose investments seem not to have suffered so much, at her town house in London. But after she died in 1898, his circumstances seem to have been greatly reduced, and at his death he was living alone, with no servant, in a mews cottage in Mayfair, next door to Lord Avebury's stables.

John Allcard saw his many sons established in a wide variety of different areas of business and the professions, but only his fifth son, Edward Allcard (1820-1900), followed him into the stockbroking business, succeeding his father as a partner in Cannon, Pelly & Allcard, which after merging with Sheppard & Sons in 1860 became Sheppard, Pelly & Allcard. He lived originally in the south-west suburbs of London, at Surbiton and later at Petersham, which were convenient for the daily journey into the capital, but in 1883 he moved to a large Italianate villa in the Sussex countryside near Horsham called Wimblehurst, which he had bought for his retirement. When he died in 1900 he left this property to his widow and children. It was occupied after his widow died in 1905 by his three daughters, as his only son, Edward Julius Allcard (1849-1933), who had followed him into the London finance industry, had acquired a home of his own near London. Wimblehurst remained in the family until the death of the youngest of the daughters, Ethel (1863-1952), at the age of 89. She is thought to have left the house to one or more of her nephews, who made efforts in the 1950s to find a viable use for the use, but in 1963 it was demolished and the site redeveloped for housing.

Edward Julius Allcard made his home near the river Thames at Teddington (Middx), which he may have selected as offering him some opportunities for sailing. Yachting became his passion, and in 1893 he obtained a Master's certificate for his steam yacht 'St Kilda'. His interest was inherited by his grandson, Edward Allcard (1914-2017), who became a naval architect and achieved fame in 1949 for a single-handed crossing of the Atlantic.

Burton Closes Hall, Bakewell, Derbyshire

In 1845 John Allcard (1779-1856) bought a small estate on the southern edge of Bakewell from the Duke of Rutland, on which to build himself a villa for summer use in his retirement. He engaged Joseph Paxton to lay out the grounds and to build the house, which Paxton designed with the assistance of his architectural assistant, John Robertson. The house took its name from the closes of land, once owned by the yeoman Burton family, on which it was built. Rather surprisingly, given that much of Paxton's earlier work had been Italianate, Burton Closes was a quiet but effective essay in romantic Tudor Gothic.
Burton Closes Hall: a view of the house from the south-east,
 showing the extent of the original villa. Image: Historic England.
The original building forms the left-hand portion of the east front, with a gable framed by thin castellated pinnacles, a ground-floor bay and a mullioned windows with stepped lights above. A similar gable forms the end elevation of the range on the south front. Immediately beyond this there was originally the eight-bay conservatory designed by Paxton to house Allcard's collection of exotic plants. 
Construction of the shell was complete by 1848, and attention then progressed to the interior decoration. A.W.N. Pugin recorded that he 'took on the job of fitting out a large house near Haddon' in 1847-48. In fact at this time the house was not all that large: it had a Great Hall and a generous timber main staircase, but there were at first only two main bedrooms. It was, however, a very rich interior, with much Gothic detailing and rich colour schemes incorporating Minton tiles and Hardman stained glass and brasswork, much of it designed in obsessive detail by Pugin. Pugin's trusted craftsmen, George Myers and J.G. Crace carried out the construction and decoration. In 1848 Allcard recorded slightly ruefully "I do not think the word economy ever entered his [Pugin's] mind...It has been my desire to let his fine and correct tastes prevail, yet I must confess I am not a little astonished at the Beauty and Grandeur of our doing".

Burton Closes Hall: an 1860 engraving of the house showing the building as extended in 1856-58. 

When William Allcard inherited in 1856 he enlarged the house into a mansion to the designs of T.D. Barry of Liverpool, at a cost of some £7,000. Paxton's conservatory was dismantled and re-erected further west, and on its former site a new Gothic range was built, which avoids any radical disjunction with the original house, but the language of which is subtly more florid and passionate than the earlier work. The focus of the design is an octagonal stone belfry tower of three stages above a porte-cochere, with late Gothic tracery as applied decoration to the wall surface. This was originally surmounted by a spirelet, now lost. The back of the new range was much plainer, echoing the facade of the service wing of the Paxton house which it faced. Together, the two ranges enclosed a rather severe entrance court that gave away nothing of the rich decoration within. The rooms in Barry's wing continued the style of the earlier interiors, and were probably designed by Crace. In 1871, the Allcard family sold Burton Closes to Smith Taylor-Whitehead, for whom J.B. Mitchell-Withers made further changes in 1888, extending the east front to the north with a block that coheres less well with the original building, having rather French-looking dormers.

Burton Closes Hall: the entrance courtyard today.

By 1939, when the house was sold for a mere £3,550, it was sliding into decay. A stained glass window depicting the archangel Uriel by Ford Maddox Brown was sold from the house in the same year (and is now in Tansley church) and the furnishings were all dispersed by auction. The house was unsympathetically treated during wartime requisitioning by the British and Dutch armies and later by prisoners of war. Some demolition work was carried out in 1949 and by 1953 the interior was described as derelict. The whole of the service wing was pulled down in 1972 and replaced by a remarkably utilitarian and unsympathetic block of flats, and the grounds were built over with suburban housing. At the same time, the rest of the house was also converted to flats in a crude way that paid scant respect to the important Victorian interiors. A lack of maintenance led to further decay, and in 1982 an application was made to demolish the house, but refused. Efforts were made in the 1980s to secure the house for the Derbyshire Historic Buildings Trust, but the cost of acquisition and repairs was beyond them, and eventually a private sector buyer was found who has restored the house and converted it as a care home. The interiors in particular are a shadow of what they once were, but at least the house has a stable use for the foreseeable future.

Burton Closes Hall: some elements of the rich Victorian decoration of the interior survive.

Descent: built for John Allcard (1779-1856); to son, William Allcard (1809-61); to son, William Henry Allcard (1838-1903), who sold after 1870 to Smith Taylor-Whitehead; sold 1902 to Alexander Campbell-Blair (1862-1936); sold 1939 to Campbell Blaire but requisitioned for military use in WW2; sold 1948... sold 1980s and converted to a care home.

Wimblehurst, Horsham, Sussex

Wimblehurst, Horsham: a postcard view of c.1908

An Italianate villa, built in 1856 for John Braby to the designs of an unknown architect, with a central belvedere tower fronted by a large single-storey porch. To either side were sections with low-pitched gables and deep bracketed eaves that are typical of the style and period. The house seems to have survived little changed until it was demolished in 1963. The site has since been developed for housing, although the lodge house survives.

Descent: built 1856 for John Braby; sold 1871 to Henry Padwick jr.; sold 1883 to Edward Allcard (1820-1900); to widow (d. 1905) and children, of whom Ethel Maud Allcard (1864-1953) was the last survivor; to nephews?, who dem. 1963.

Allcard family of Burton Closes and Wimblehurst

Allcard, John (1779-1856). Eldest son of James Allcard of Leek (Staffs) and his wife Sarah, daughter of John Firth of Bristol, born at Leek, 22 February 1779. Auditor, banker and later stockbroker in London; partner in firm of Cannon, Pelly & Allcard. A Quaker in religion. Admitted a freeman of the City of London, 1808. He was a keen botanist and plant collector, with a particular interest in orchids. In 1852 he paid for the erection of a Friends Meeting House in Bakewell. He married, 18 August 1805 at All Hallows, Lombard St., London, Mary Ann (1784-1843), daughter of John Swinborn of Bromley by Bow (Middx), and had issue:
(1) James Allcard (1805-33), born (just a month after his parents' marriage), 16 September 1805; died in Singapore, 1833;
(2) William Allcard (1809-61) (q.v.);
(3) Henry Allcard (1811-31), born 23 February 1811; died unmarried, 24 April 1831, and was buried in the Quaker burial ground at Ratcliff Highway (Middx), 1 May 1831;
(4) Maria Allcard (1813-29), born 1 March 1813; died young, 6 December 1829 and was buried in the Quaker burial ground at Ratcliff Highway, 13 December 1829;
(5) Ellen Allcard (1814-88), born 25 December 1814; married, 30 April 1840 at the Friends Meeting House, Plaistow (Essex), William Maw Shillitoe (1815-47) of Birmingham, chemist and druggist, and had issue one son and two daughters; died 7 March 1888; administration of goods granted to her daughter, 9 February 1889 (effects £1,606);
(6) Sarah Allcard (1817-99), born 7 February 1817; acted as housekeeper to her father, and was evidently an assiduous member of the Society of Friends, as her father bequeathed her his books relating to the Society of Friends; subsequently lived at Hamilton Terrace, Marylebone, with her cousin Eliza S. Shipman, who had been brought up in the Allcard household; died unmarried, 5 January 1899; will proved 13 February 1899 (effects £2,289);
(7) Thomas Allcard (1818-1901), born 14 December 1818;  civil engineer; manager of Allcard & Buddicom's railway interests in France; lived at Sotteville-les-Rouen (France) but later retired to England; married, 9 August 1856 at Brighton (Sussex), Marie Anne Desirée Courtin (1823-84), but had no issue; died in Sicily (Italy), 28 January 1901;
(8) Edward Allcard (1820-1900) (q.v.);
(9) Robert Allcard (1823-81), born 9 September 1823; in partnership with Thomas Phillips and John Carr as timber merchants at Imperial Saw Mills, London (diss. 1850), a business by which his father sustained 'a great pecuniary loss', as a result of which he was largely cut out of his father's will; died at Bordeaux (France), 8 December 1881;
(10) Mary Ann Allcard (1825-84), born 5 July 1825; married, without her father's consent, 25 March 1854 at Bakewell, Henry Hornbuckle Hine (1814-93) of Bramcote (Notts), and had issue three sons and two daughters; died at Worthing (Sussex), 22 February 1884;
(11) George Allcard (1827-78), born 25 March 1827; surgeon; MRCS; married, 22 January 1857 at Edensor (Derbys), Victoria (1833-94), daughter of the engineer and architect, Sir Joseph Paxton, kt., and had issue two daughters; died at Chislehurst (Kent), 13 May 1878; will proved 11 July 1878 (effects under £7,000).
He lived at Stratford Green, West Ham (Essex) until he purchased the site of Burton Closes Hall in 1845 and built the house in 1845-48.
He died 9 April 1856; his will was proved in the PCC, 1 May 1856 (effects under £25,000). His wife died 4 July 1843.

Allcard, William (1809-61), Second, but eldest surviving son of John Allcard and his wife Mary Ann Swinborn, born 30 June 1809 and baptised in the Church of England, 6 April 1844 at Warrington (Lancs). As a young man he became a pupil of George Stephenson at the steam engine manufactory in Newcastle-on-Tyne; by 1826 he had experience of surveying railway lines and was put in charge of designing and constructing the key section of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway across Chat Moss. After the railway opened, he became Resident Engineer for the Liverpool end of the line until 1834, when he moved to a similar post building the Grand Junction Railway between Birmingham and Stafford. In 1837 he began contracting for the maintenance of railway lines. In 1841 he formed the firm of Allcard & Buddicom to manufacture railway locomotives and rolling stock for French railway companies, with a large engineering works near Rouen (which was managed by his brother). He retired from active involvement in business in 1847. JP and DL for Derbyshire. He married 9 October 1834 at Winwick (Lancs), Mary (c.1814-), the daughter of Dr T.D. Malloney MD of Demerera (British Guiana), and had issue:
(1) Mary Anne Allcard (1837-1913); was a Protestant Sister of Charity at a short-lived convalescent hospital at Ridge House, Barnet (Herts) but left the order before 1887 and was subsequently involved in an unsuccessful legal action for the recovery of her dowry; lived later with a companion in London; died unmarried in Bournemouth, 11 February 1913; will proved 28 March 1913 (estate £20,811);
(2) William Henry Allcard (1838-1903) (q.v.);
(3) Frank Allcard (1841-73), baptised at Warrington, 9 May 1841; employed in merchant's office; married, 5 October 1863, Frances Emma, daughter of Andrew Read of St. Marylebone, gent., but had no issue; died at Wynaad, Malabar (India), 27 April 1873; will proved 6 August 1873 (effects under £6,000);
(4) Arthur Edward Allcard (1842-67), born 24 May and baptised at Warrington, 29 July 1842; educated at Wandsworth (Surrey) and Trinity College, Cambridge (matriculated 1860; BA 1864); died unmarried, 10 July 1867;
(5) Daniel Thomas Allcard (1844-1902), baptised at Warrington, 4 July 1844; an officer in the 84th foot (Ensign, 1865; Lt., 1867; Capt. 1871; retired by 1891); died 27 January 1902; administration of goods granted to his brother, 3 April 1902 (effects £238);
(6) James Allcard (b. 1845), baptised at Warrington, 16 June 1845; educated at Christ Church, Oxford (matriculated 1863; BA 1868) and Lincolns Inn (admitted 1868); in 1893 he was fined £4,500 damages for adultery with Georgina Augusta (c.1849-1924), the wife of Maj. Wargrave Kell and daughter of Count Alexander Konarski, whom he subsequently married at Christ Church, Somers Town, 18 November 1893; his date of death has not been traced;
(7) Septimus Allcard (1846-68), born Jul-Sep 1846 and baptised at Warrington, 1 June 1847; died at Menton (France), 23 March 1868; administration of goods granted to his brother, 18 June 1868 (effects under £2,000);
(8) Lt-Col. Octavius Allcard (1847-1912), born 28 November 1847 and baptised at Warrington, 6 June 1848; an officer in the 9th foot (Ensign, 1867; Lt., 1871; Capt., 1881; Maj., 1883; retired as Lt-Col., 1895); died in Brighton, 1 May 1912; administration of goods granted to his brother, 4 June 1912 (estate £209);
(9) George Frederick Allcard (1849-1922), baptised at Warrington, 4 October 1849; educated at Rugby and Magdalene College, Cambridge (matriculated 1869); an officer in the Hertfordshire militia (2nd Lt., 1871; Lt., 1871; Capt., 1878; retired 1882); member of Esher Urban District Council, 1898; married, 10 April 1872 at St James, Piccadilly, Westminster (Middx), Agnes Martha Allnutt, daughter of Paul Long of Wotton-under-Edge (Glos), and had issue three children; died at Harrow (Middx), 5 June 1922; administration of goods granted to his widow, 3 August 1922 (estate £3,054).
He inherited Burton Closes from his father in 1856 and enlarged it in 1856-58.
He died 5 August 1861; his will was proved 20 September 1861 (effects under £120,000). His widow died in Bournemouth, 7 May 1898; her will was proved 24 June 1898 (effects £1,121).

Allcard, William Henry (1838-1903). Eldest son of William Allcard (1809-61) and his wife Mary, daughter of Dr T.D. Malloney of Demerera (Guiana), born 10 January and baptised at St Catherine, Liverpool, 1 June 1838. Educated at Lincolns Inn (admitted 1863). Solicitor; barrister-at-law. He is said to have lost all his money in the stockmarket crash of 1866. Fellow of the Zoological Society of London from 1869. He was unmarried and without issue.
He inherited Burton Closes from his father in 1861, but sold it in 1871. He subsequently lived with his mother in London until her death, and then in a mews cottage in Mayfair, where he had no servant.
He died in London, 17 January 1903; administration of his goods was granted to his sister, 23 March 1903 (effects £269).

Allcard, Edward (1820-1900). Fifth son of John Allcard of Burton Closes Hall (Derbys), and his wife Mary Ann Swinborn, born 8 December 1820. Stockbroker; partner in Cannon, Pelly & Allcard and later Sheppard, Pelly & Allcard (retired 1888). He was a generous supporter and benefactor of Horsham Cottage Hospital. He married, 4 June 1846 at Chalfont St Peter (Bucks), Frances Mary (1820-1905), daughter of Stephen Cannon of Wood Bank, Gerrards Cross (Bucks), and had issue:
(1) Edward Julius Allcard (1849-1933) (q.v.);
(2) Frances Edith Allcard (1851-1906), born 30 June and baptised at St Mark, Clerkenwell, 25 July 1851; died unmarried, 30 September 1906 and was buried at Horsham, 3 October 1906; will proved 26 October 1906 (estate £16,050);
(3) Ada Mary Allcard (1853-1931), born 10 May 1853; married, 29 December 1884, Lt. Julius August Bernard Ludwig von Hartmann (c.1851-1902), son of Gen. Julius von Hartmann of Prussian Cavalry; she lived in Germany after her marriage but returned to England on her husband's death and resumed her maiden name during the First World War; a keen archer, she was Treasurer of St Leonard's Foresters Archery Society; died 26 March 1931 and was buried at Horsham; her will was proved 15 May 1931 (estate £32,956);
(4) Ethel Maud Allcard (1863-1952) (q.v.).
He purchased Wimblehurst, Horsham, in 1883. After his death it passed to his widow and then to his daughters.
He died 12 March 1900 and was buried at Horsham; his will was proved 17 May 1900 (estate £133,606). His widow died 4 October 1905 and was buried at Horsham; her will was proved 4 December 1905 (estate £25,602).

Edward Julius Allcard (1849-1933)
Allcard, Edward Julius (1849-1933). Only son of Edward Allcard (1820-1900) of Wimblehurst and his wife Frances, daughter of Stephen Cannon of Wood Bank, Gerrards Cross (Bucks), born 9 March and baptised at St Mark, Clerkenwell, London, 4 April 1849. Admitted as a member of the London Stock Exchange, 1870; stock-jobber. A keen yachtsman, he obtained a Master's certificate in 1893. He married, 1876, probably in Germany, Helene Auguste Charlotte Harseim (1853-1939), and had issue:
(1) Herbert Allcard (1876-1970), born 9 April and baptised at Petersham (Surrey), 14 May 1876; educated at Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst; an officer in the Royal Field Artillery (2nd Lt., 1896; Lt., 1899; Capt., 1902; Maj., 1912; Lt-Col., 1917), who served in South Africa (DSO, cancelled 1922) and First World War; married, Apr-Jun 1905 (sep. c.1918), Althea Beryl Molyneux Nicholson alias Carter, and had issue one son and one daughter; married bigamously, 31 December 1921 in Paris, his secretary and interpreter, Marie (d. 1922), daughter of Maj-Gen. Kotlarevsky of the Russian Imperial Army, who committed suicide in Chelsea (Middx) after the bigamous nature of her marriage was discovered; he was convicted and sent to prison for six months for bigamy; died aged 93 at Worthing, 7 March 1970; will proved 3 August 1970 (estate £4,164);
(2) Victor Allcard (1880-1978), born 24 October and baptised at St Mark, Surbiton (Surrey), 8 December 1880; stock-jobber; a freeman of the City of London from 1905; married, 1 August 1907 at St Mark, Surbiton, Ethel Kate (1880-1980), daughter of Frederick John Whitmore, gent., and had issue two daughters; died aged 97, 25 March 1978; will proved 10 July 1978 (estate £62,747);
(3) Rupert Allcard (1884-1967), born 5 July and baptised at Horsham, 19 August 1884; married, 17 April 1912 at Holy Trinity, Chelsea (Middx), Helen Flora (1887-1968), daughter of Frederick John Whitmore and had issue a son (the naval architect and single-handed yachtsman, Edward Allcard (1914-2017)); died 3 November 1967; will proved 10 January 1968 (estate £114,965).
He lived at Holmesdale, Teddington (Middx).
He died 1 February 1933; his will was proved 12 April 1933 (estate £28,079). His widow died 18 May 1939; will proved 1 July 1939 (estate £2,422).

Allcard, Ethel Maud (1863-1952). Youngest daughter of Edward Allcard (1820-1900) of Wimblehurst and his wife Frances, daughter of Stephen Cannon of Wood Bank, Gerrards Cross (Bucks), born Oct-Dec 1863. She was unmarried and without issue.
She and her sisters inherited Wimblehurst following the death of her mother in 1905. After 1931 she was the last survivor of the sisters. Following her death the house was divided into flats and later demolished in 1963.
She died 27 December 1952; her will was proved 15 April 1953 (estate £51,215).


M. Craven & M. Stanley, The Derbyshire country house, 2001, pp. 60-61; B. Slyfield, 'Edward Allcard and his family: generous town benefactors', Newsletter of the Horsham Society, November 2006, pp. 77-78; C. Hartwell, Sir N. Pevsner & E. Williamson, The buildings of England: Derbyshire, 2016, pp. 140-42; D. Barre, Historic gardens and parks of Derbyshire, 2017, pp. 167-69;

Location of archives

No significant accumulation is known to survive.

Coat of arms

Quarterly, argent and or, on a bend nebulée azure, three swans heads erased of the first, beaked gules.

Can you help?

Here are a few notes about information and images which would help to improve the account above. If you can help with any of these or with other additions or corrections, please use the contact form in the sidebar to get in touch. Can anyone:

  • Provide images of the interior of Burton Closes Hall when the Pugin-Crace decoration was intact?
  • Provide additional images of Wimblehurst, especially views of the interior?
  • Provide information about the location of family papers of the Allcard family.

Revision and acknowledgements

This post was first published 10 January 2018.